Traditional methods of manual restraint or immobilization of antelopes with pharmaceuticals result in both behavioral and physiological sings of stress. Nyala and bongo antelope at the Denver Zoological Garden have been successfully trained to cooperate with veterinary procedures. Highly palatable treats which were not a part of the animal's diet were used to entice the animals to enter a plywood box equipped with remote controlled vertical slide gates on each end. After the bongo were trained, very low cortisol levels near baseline were obtained. For three animals, the levels were 6, 8.5, and 4.5 ng/ml after they had stood in the box for 20 minutes. These crate conditioned bongos had much lower cortisol levels than those reported in the literature for restained deer or cattle (values for manually restrained and deer darted with ketamine, 45.3 ng/ml and 55.6 ng/ml, respectively; domestic cattle restrained in squeeze chutes, 25 to 63 ng/ml). The cortisol levels in crate conditioned bongo were at almost the baseline reported for cattle (2 to 9 ng/ml) and bighorn sheep (5 ng/ml). Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels for four bongos averaged 71 I.U. in trained animals and 288 I.U. in immobilized animals. Comparisons of crate conditioned glucose levels to glucose levels obtained from the bongos' medical records indicated that crate conditioned animals were also much lower than values reported in the International Species Inventory System. These values have probably been obtained in immobilized or manually restrained animals. ISIS average values for bongo are:
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