The Principles Of Low Stress Restraint
Cattle and Pigs




Cattle restraining squeeze chute with angled rubber louvres on the side which prevent the cattle from seeing people. The side can be opened for easy access for injections and other veterinary procedures. The louvres block the animal's vision the same way that louvred shutters block vision through windows in a house.



  1. Solid sides or barriers around the cattle to prevent them from seeing people deep inside their flight zones. This is especially important for wild or excitable cattle.

  2. To prevent lunging at the headgate, the bovine's view of an escape pathway must be blocked until it is fully restrained. This principle does not apply to pigs.

  3. Provide non-slip flooring for all species of animals.

    
    
    
    
    A good example of a non-slick surface for livestock.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    

  4. Slow steady motion of a restraint device is calming, while sudden jerky motion excite.

  5. Use the concept of optimal pressure. Sufficient pressure must be applied to provide the feeling of restraint, but excessive pressure that causes pain or discomfort must be avoided.

  6. The entrance of the restraint device must be well lighted, however, lamps must not glare into the eyes of approaching animals. All species must be able to see a place to go.

  7. Livestock will remain calmer if they can see other animals within touching distance.

  8. Engineer equipment to minimize noise. High pitched noise is more disturbing to livestock than a low pitched rumble.

  9. Restraint devices must be designed to avoid uncomfortable pressure points on the animal's body.

  10. Restrain livestock in an upright position.

References :

Grandin, T.(1995)
Restraint of Livestock
Proceedings: Animal Behaviour, Design of Livestock and Poultry Systems International Conference pages 208-223
Published by: Northeast Regional Agriculture Engineering Service,
Cooperative Extension 152 Riley - Robb Hall Ithaca, New York, 14853 USA

Grandin, T. (Editor) 1993

Livestock Handling and Transport
CAB International Wallingford Oxon, United Kingdom

Grandin, T. (1991)

Double Rail Restrainer For Handling Beef Cattle
Paper No. 915004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers
2950 Niles Road St.Joseph , Michigan, 49085 USA

Grandin, T. 1988

Double Rail Restrainer For Livestock Handling
Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 41:327-338


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