The Principles Of Low Stress Restraint
Cattle and Pigs
Cattle restraining squeeze chute with angled rubber louvres on the
side which prevent the cattle from seeing people. The side can be
opened for easy access for injections and other veterinary procedures.
The louvres block the animal's vision the same way that louvred shutters
block vision through windows in a house.
- Solid sides or barriers around the cattle to prevent them from
people deep inside their flight zones. This is especially important for
wild or excitable cattle.
- To prevent lunging at the headgate, the bovine's view of an escape
pathway must be blocked until it is fully restrained. This principle does
not apply to pigs.
- Provide non-slip flooring for all species of animals.
A good example of a non-slick surface for livestock.
- Slow steady motion of a restraint device is calming, while sudden
jerky motion excite.
- Use the concept of optimal pressure. Sufficient pressure must be
applied to provide the feeling of restraint, but excessive pressure that
causes pain or discomfort must be avoided.
- The entrance of the restraint device must be well lighted, however,
lamps must not glare into the eyes of approaching animals. All species
must be able to see a place to go.
- Livestock will remain calmer if they can see other animals within
- Engineer equipment to minimize noise. High pitched noise is more
disturbing to livestock than a low pitched rumble.
- Restraint devices must be designed to avoid uncomfortable pressure
points on the animal's body.
- Restrain livestock in an upright position.
Animal Behaviour, Design of Livestock and Poultry Systems International
Conference pages 208-223
Published by: Northeast Regional
Agriculture Engineering Service,
152 Riley - Robb Hall Ithaca, New York, 14853 USA
Grandin, T. (Editor) 1993
Livestock Handling and Transport
CAB International Wallingford Oxon, United
Grandin, T. (1991)
Double Rail Restrainer For Handling Beef Cattle
Paper No. 915004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers
2950 Niles Road St.Joseph , Michigan, 49085 USA
Grandin, T. 1988
Double Rail Restrainer For Livestock
Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 41:327-338
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